GIS stands for Geographic Information System. A System, which is designed to store, capture, analyze, manage, manipulate, and present spatial or geographic data, is called GIS. It is an information system, which integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. With GIS applications tools, it may be easy for the users to create interactive queries, means user-created searches, analyze spatial information, edit data in maps and can present the results of all operations. The acronym of GIS sometimes stands for Geographic Information Science (GIS Science), which is referred to the academic discipline that studies about Geographic Information Systems. GIS is a very large idea, which can refer to various different technologies, processes, and methods. Many different operations and applications are attached with GIS and are related to engineering, planning, management, transport or logistics, insurance, telecommunications, and business. For many location-enabled services, which rely on analysis and visualization, GIS and location intelligence applications can be worked as a foundation. GIS can able to visualize various kinds of data on one map such as streets, buildings, and vegetation. With this facility, people can see, analyze and understand patterns and relationships easily.
Geographic information systems (GIS) can easily display various things in the map. It may be formed spatially oriented concepts such as travel patterns. It provides easy viewing of the data. With the generated maps, a clear indication of regions, counties, towns, and so on can be received. Digital information is used in modern GIS technologies, for this purpose, different digitized data creation methods are used. Digitization is the most common method of the data creation. It involves a hard copy map or survey plan, which is transferred into a digital medium with the use of geo-referencing capabilities and a CAD Program. In Earth space-time, locations or extents may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence. The X, Y and Z coordinates represent longitude, latitude, and elevation respectively. The accuracy of GIS is dependent on the source data and how it is encoded to be data referenced. By the use of the GPS-derived positions, the land surveyors are able to provide a high level of positional accuracy. To serve the society in a large scale, the quality, expectation, and utility of GIS are changing through the high-resolution digital terrain and aerial imagery, web technology as well as with the powerful computers.